Added: Felicia Frisina - Date: 17.09.2021 13:57 - Views: 16543 - Clicks: 9472
The things that a user sees when looking at a Ren'Py game can be divided into images and user interface. Images are displayed to the user using the scene, show, and hide statements, and are generally part of the story being told. Everything else the user sees is part of the user interface, which is customized using screens.
Screens have two main functions. The first is to display information to the user. Information can be displayed using text, bars, and images. Some of the information displayed in this manner is vital to gameplay. The say screen, for example, is used to display dialogue to the user, including the character's name and what she is saying.
The other thing a screen can do is to allow the user to interact with the game. Buttons and bars allow the user to invoke actions and adjust values. Ren'Py includes a pool of pre-defined actions, allowing the user to advance the game, control preferences, load and save games, and invoke many other actions. A game-maker can also write new actions in Python. A screen has a scope associated with it, giving values to some variables. When a variable is accessed by a screen, it's first looked up in the scope, and then looked up as a global variable.
Screens must not cause side effects that are visible from outside the screen. Ren'Py will run a screen multiple times, as it deems necessary. It runs a screen as part of the image prediction process, before the screen is first shown. As a result, if running a screen has side effects, those side effects may occur at unpredictable times. Using Python generators in screens may cause unpredictable. This traces back to an issue with the way the Python interpreter compiles Python source code that will be used in a screen context.
Generators can be used in Python functions called from a screen, but not in the screen itself. The screen language is a mostly-declarative way of displaying screens. It consists of a statement that declares a new screen, statements that add displayables to that screen, and control statements. The first line of this is a screen statement, a Ren'Py language statement that's used to declare a screen. The name of renpy show screen screen is sayso this is the screen that's used to display dialogue.
It takes two parameters, who and what. The screen contains a window, which has been given the id of "window". This window contains a vertical box, and the spacing inside that box is 10 pixels. It contains two text fields, one displaying the name of the speaker, and the displaying what is being spoken. Most screen language statements share a common syntax. Some of the control statements have other syntaxes.
A statement starts at the beginning of a line, with a keyword that introduces the statement. If a statement takes parameters, they immediately follow the keyword. The parameters are space-separated simple expressions, unless otherwise noted. The positional parameters are followed by a property list. A property consists of the property name, followed by the value of that property.
Property values are simple expressions, unless otherwise noted.
A property list is a renpy show screen list of these properties. If a statement ends with a colon :then it takes a block. Each line in a block may be one of two things:. The screen statement is a Ren'Py script language statement that is used to declare a new screen. It is parsed using the screen language common syntax.
It takes one parameter, the name of the screen. This is a name, not an expression. It takes the following properties:. The user interface statements create displayables and add them either to the screen, or to an enclosing displayable.
They allow the user to display information, allow the user to interact with the game, or allow the game to react to various events. This can be a transform, or a list of transforms, or an anonymous transform a transform that is defined directly in at. This transforms are used to wrap this displayable.
The show, hide, replace, and replaced external events are delivered to a transform if and only if it is added directly to the screen. For example, if a vbox is wrapped in a transform, and added directly to the screen, then events are delivered to that transform. But if a transform wraps a textbutton that is added to the vbox, this second transform is not given events. An identifier for the user-interface statement. When a screen is shown, property values can be supplied for the displayables with a given identifier.
Some screens will require that a displayable with a given identifier is created.
By default, the id is automatically-generated. Provides a prefix to the style of this displayable and all of its children, unless those children have a more specific style or style prefix set. The style name is created by concatenating a style prefix, underscore, and a style suffix. Styles accessed in this way are automatically created, if the style does not exist. Setting a renpy show screen of None removes the prefix from this displayable and its children. If no style prefix is in use, this is used directly as the name of the style.
A style suffix applies to a single displayable only, not a displayable and all children. Ass a tooltip to this displayable. When the displayable gains focus, the value of this property will be made available from the GetTooltip function. See the Tooltips section for more details. Objects passed to tooltip must support equality. If equality is not supported, an infinite loop may occur. Many user interface statements take classes of style properties, or transform properties. These properties can have a style prefix associated with them, that determines when they apply.
User interface statements take an as clause, which takes a variable name, without any quotes. The displayable that the statement creates is ased to the variable.
An example can be found in the drag and drop documentation. Creates a horizontally-oriented bar that can be used to view or adjust data. One of value or adjustment must be given. In addition, this function takes:. Creates an area of the screen that can be activated to run an action.
A button takes no parameters, and the following properties. It takes one children. If zero, two, or more children are supplied, they are implicitly added to a fixed, which is added to the button. This creates an area to which children can be added. By default, the fixed expands to fill the available area, but the xmaximum and ymaximum properties can change this.
The children are laid out according to their position style properties. They can overlap if not positioned properly. It's often unnecessary to explicitly create a fixed displayable.
Each screen is contained within a fixed displayable, and many screen language statements automatically create a fixed displayable if they have two or more children. A frame is a window that contains a background that is intended for displaying user-interface elements like buttons, bars, and text.
It takes the following groups of properties:. It takes one. If zero, two, or more children are supplied, then a fixed is created to contain them.Renpy show screen
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Advanced Ren’Py: Part 1: Screen Language