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Styles and Style Properties. Screen Actions, Values, and Functions. Enter search terms or a module, class or function name. The things that a user sees when looking at a Ren'Py game can be broken divided into images and user interface. Images are displayed to the user using the scene, show, and hide statements, and are generally part of the story being told. Everything else the user sees is part of the user interface, which is customized using screens. Screens have two main functions. The first is to display information to the user. Information can renpy call screen displayed using text, bars, and images.
Some of the information displayed in this manner is vital to gameplay. The say screen, for example, is used to display dialogue to the user, including the character's name and what she is saying. The other thing a screen can do is to allow the user to interact with the game. Buttons and bars allow the user to invoke actions and adjust values. Ren'Py includes a pool of pre-defined actions, allowing the user to advance the game, control preferences, load and save games, and invoke many other actions.
A game-maker can also write new actions in Python. A screen has a scope associated with it, giving values to some variables. When a variable is accessed by a screen, it's first looked up in the scope, and then looked up as a global variable. The screen language is a mostly-declarative way of displaying screens.
It consists of a statement that declares a new screen, statements that add displayables to that screen, and control statements. The first line of this is a screen statement, a Ren'Py language statement that's used to declare a screen. The name of the screen is sayso this is the screen that's used to display dialogue. The screen contains a window, which has been given the id of "window". This window contains a vertical box, and the spacing inside that box is 10 pixels. It contains two text fields, one of the name of the speaker, and the other with the speaker's renpy call screen.
Most screen language statements share a common syntax. Some of the control statements have other syntaxes. A statement starts at the beginning of a line, with a keyword that introduces the statement. If a statement takes parameters, they immediately follow the keyword. The parameters are space-separated simple expressions, unless otherwise noted. The positional parameters are followed by a property list.
A property consists renpy call screen the property name, followed by the value of that property. Property values are simple expressions, unless otherwise noted. A property list is a space-separated list of these properties. If a statement ends with a colon :then it takes a block. Each line in a block may be one of two things:.
The screen statement is a Ren'Py script language statement that is used to declare a new screen. It is parsed using the screen language common syntax. It takes one parameter, the name of the screen. This is a name, not an expression. It takes the following properties:. The user interface statements create displayables and add them either to the screen, or to an enclosing displayable.
They allow the user to display information, allow the user to interact with the game, or allow the game to react to various events. A transform, or list of transforms, that are used to wrap this displayable. The show, hide, replace, and replaced external events are delivered to a transform if and only if it is added directly to the screen. For example, if a vbox is wrapped in a transform, and added directly to the screen, then events are delivered to that transform. But if a transform wraps a textbutton that is added to the vbox, this second transform is not given events.
An identifier for the user-interface statement. When a screen is shown, property values can be supplied for the displayables with a given identifier. Some screens will require that a displayable with a given identifier is created. Styles accessed in this way are automatically created, if they do not exist. This prevents an error from being alled. Setting a group of None disables this behavior for a displayable and all of its children.
Many user interface statements take classes of style properties, or transform properties. These properties can have a style prefix associated with them, that determines when they apply. Adds an image or other displayable to the screen. This optionally takes transform properties. If at least one transform property is given, a Transform renpy call screen created to wrap the image, and the properties are given to the transform. Creates a horizontally-oriented bar that can be used to view or adjust data. One of value or adjustment must be given. In addition, this function takes:. Creates an area of the screen that can be activated to run an action.
A button takes no parameters, and the following properties. It takes one children. If zero, two, or more children are supplied, they are implicitly added to a fixed, which is added to the button. This creates an area to which children can be added. By default, the fixed expands to fill the available area, but the xmaximum and ymaximum properties can change this. The children are laid out according to their position style properties.
They can overlap if not positioned properly. It's often unnecessary to explicitly create a fixed displayable. Each screen is contained within a fixed displayable, and many screen language statements automatically create a fixed displayable if they have two or more children. A frame is a window that contains a background that is intended for displaying user-interface elements like buttons, bars, and text.
It takes the following groups of properties:. It takes one. If zero, two, or more children are supplied, then a fixed is created to contain them. This displays its children in a grid. Each child is given an area of the same size, the size of the largest. It takes two parameters. The first is the of columns in the grid, and the second is the of rows in the grid. It takes the following property:. Giving it a different of children is renpy call screen error. This displays its children side by side, in an invisible horizontal box.
It takes no parameters, and the following groups of properties:. Creates a button consisting of images, renpy call screen change state when the user hovers over them. This takes no parameters, and the following properties:. Used to automatically define the images used by this button. The behavior of auto can be customized by changing config. Creates a text input area, which allows the user to enter text. When the user presses return, the text will be returned by the interaction.
This creates a keybinding that runs an action when a key is pressed. Key is used in a loose sense here, as it also allows joystick and mouse events. Key takes one positional parameter, a string giving the key to bind. It takes one property:. Creates a window in the label style, and then places text inside that window.
Together, this combination is used to label things inside a frame. The null statement inserts an empty area on the screen. This can be used to space things out. The null statement takes no parameters, and the following properties:. A mouse area is an area of the screen that can react to the mouse entering or leaving it.
Unlike a button, a mouse area does not take focus, so it's possible to have a mouse area with buttons inside it. The mousearea statement takes not parameters, and the following properties:. Usually, a mousearea statement is given the area style property, which controls the size and position of the mouse area. Without some way of controlling its size, the mouse area would take up the entire screen, a less useful behavior. Since Ren'Py games can be played using the keyboard and joystick, it often makes sense to duplicate mousearea functionality by some other means.
This positions displayables in the corners or center of a grid.
It takes a single parameter, string containing a space-separated list of places to place its children. Each component of this list should be one of:. When being rendered, this first sizes the corners, then the sides, then the center. The corners and sides are rendered with an available area of 0, so it may be necessary to supply them a minimum size using xminimum or yminimum to ensure they render at all.
Children correspond to entries in the places list, so this must have the same of children as there are entries in the places list. The text statement displays text. It takes a single parameter, the text to display. It also takes the following groups of properties:.
Creates a button containing a text label. The button takes a single parameter, the text to include as part of the button. This creates a timer that runs an action when time runs out. It takes one positional parameter, giving the timeout time, in seconds. It takes the properties:. The vertically oriented equivalent of bar.Renpy call screen
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