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Southern European society has been described in sociological literature as ableist, patriarchal and male-oriented. The social construction of the impaired body as passive and dependent is conducive to a process of desexualization, presenting disabled people as inadequate for a full intimate life.

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The dominant biomedical model reinforces this process. The authors also suggest that the desexualization of disabled women is replicating, as well as resulting from, historical tendencies to dehumanize and infantilize women. Theirs are stories of counter-norms and the struggle for sexual fulfilment and recognition. Narrow, heteronormative and ableist understandings of sexual intercourse and the linear character of mainstream stories of intimacy are shown as hindering the prospect of the recognition of disabled women as sexual citizens.

Following the overturn of the longest dictatorship in Western Europe inPortugal underwent an extensive process of legal and cultural change. However, many conservative features remain ingrained in the dominant culture. Considering the prevalent cultural features related to patriarchy and ableism in Portugal Fontes, ; Martins, ; Tavares,many disabled women are in a particularly vulnerable position, accumulating inequalities based on ableism and sexism.

This article illustrates how intimacy remains domesticized within the constraining grid of expectations, roles and norms that outlaws at least culturally non-normative sexual practices and subjects. These include groups as different and similar as intergenerational Burdick, or childless couples Dhar,transgender Davy and Steinbock, ; Morgan et al. Within the specific themes of intimacy and disability, our study involved the gathering of life stories of disabled women living in Portugal.

Their s are crucial for understanding the emotional management of identities which are situated at — and in many regards constitutive of — the fuck sexual intersection of sexism and disablism. The participants in the study spoke about obstacles and constraints fuck sexual have encountered whilst striving to be recognized as fully intimate citizens Roseneil, There are two trajectories of theoretical and analytic attention to the body that are relevant to this research — gender studies and disability studies.

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The regulation and surveillance of female bodies throughout history has been of great scholarly interest to feminist researchers. Concomitantly, issues of sexuality and intimacy are increasingly relevant topics for social scientists Richardson,; Richardson and Turner, ; Roseneil, ; Roseneil et al. Particularly important is the work of Ken Plummer, fuck sexual understands intimate citizenship as building upon the feminist citizenship project that is focused on the ways that the process of citizenship is gendered.

Intimate citizenship also draws on analyses of sexual citizenship that demonstrate the heterosexual, patriarchal principles that inform citizenship within societies and the construction of subjects to which sexual rights are ascribed and denied. Plummer, : Intimate citizenship can be used as a wider ifier that encompasses the gendered, sexual and reproductive aspects of citizenship. For this project, it was useful in drawing attention to the ways in which disabled women have had histories of medical, legal and cultural often religious intervention regarding their experiences of sexuality.

This document was called The Fundamental Principles of Disability. This was the first time that disability was defined in sociological terms in opposition to a strictly medical approach. A major premise of SMD is the split between impairment — i. Instead of being a direct result of impairment, disability is understood as the consequence of a society that disables people by regulating, constraining and occluding people with different impairments.

In so doing, SMD transformed disability from a medical and individual problem into a social and political issue. In relation to issues of the forced sterilization of disabled people, for example, the social model recognized this as a result of eugenics and ableist discourses in which the bodies of disabled people fuck sexual considered asexual, hypersexual or unable to give consent.

Criticism of this model has included its alleged disregard towards simultaneous intersectional oppressions and its occlusion of the corporeal, lived elements of disability Rembis, Similarly, and despite the importance of feminism in promoting cultural, political and epistemological changes in patriarchal and heteronormative societies, mainstream gender studies overlooked the impact of ableism on women.

Partially as a response to such criticisms of mainstream gender studies and disability fuck sexual for these omissions, a third body of literature emerged: feminist disability studies FDS. FDS is concerned with intersectionality and the ways that disability is inextricably linked to other of identity such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, age and class Garland-Thomson, ; Ghai, ; Shildrick, ; Valentine and Skelton, Garland-Thomson : explains that FDS.

It helps us understand the intricate relation between bodies and selves. It illuminates the social processes of identity formation. It aims to denaturalize disability. Importantly, FDS calls for the public validation of a variety of sexual relationships and practices for disabled women.

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Among its many interests is a concern with rights pertaining to self-identity and self-definition as a sexual person, and rights to sexual education and pleasure. The problem of misfitting does not stem from the body, but from the encounter of that body with the environment. Within FDS this relation between body and world is fluid and never fixed, and the access and inclusivity in the structured environment can only be achieved through changing the environment itself, not through modifying or occluding certain bodies.

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The salience of understanding the sexual and erotic experiences of disabled women through an approach that draws on FDS is its concern with cultural representations of the body and sexuality. Also, FDS considers subjectivities, different embodiments, invisible injuries, temporarily non-disabled bodies, the role of caregivers, aging, and chronic diseases, amongst other aspects of the lived experiential body in the intersubjective realm, which have historically been largely disregarded by mainstream disability studies and feminist studies.

Informed by feminist disability studies, the stories of disabled women collected in our research are crucial for understanding the broader social and cultural contours in which these women enact their sexual desires and lived sexual experience. Empirical research was carried out using the biographical narrative interpretive method BNIM Wengraf, We interviewed 30 disabled women between 29 and 49 years old, with and without children.

The sample was selected using a snowball method as well as fuck sexual call for interviewees on websites of partner institutions and social networks. Most fuck sexual the participants in the study were white, Portuguese, self-identified as heterosexual and non-practising Catholic. It is important to note that the Catholic doctrine considers sexual activity between husband and wife as moral and ethical whilst practices outside this relationship are presented as an issue of moral concern.

In our research only one of the women spoke and very briefly about the impact of her Catholic faith on her sex life. The vast majority only mentioned religion when the researcher asked for specific biographical data. For ethical reasons, personal details have been fully anonymized.

Both in cases of congenital deficiency or acquired disability, desexualization is simply naturalized Shakespeare et al. There are many factors that explain the desexualization of disabled people, especially of women. In challenging the ableist, western capitalist discourse of autonomous individuality Shildrick, : and in revealing the unstable character of all corporealitiesdisability can be seen as a threat to the normative constraints of sexuality.

The idea of the erotic, eroticized and desiring disabled body defies the laws of heteronormative, able-bodied desire.

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Manuela, 45—49 years old, spinal cord injured, explains:. It has happened to me, people asking out of nowhere, strangers or friends, if I have sex and how is it possible to have sex. The very idea of sexual life is ableist Rainey, ; Siebers, to the extent that its heterosexist assumptions and underlying practices fuck sexual supposedly only achievable by certain bodies.

In this framework, fuck sexual engagement is inaccessible to those bodies that do not fit a particular aesthetic or functional ideal. Therefore, norms for sexual activity are imposed by external mechanisms in a regulated form, replicating the hetero-reproductive and patriarchal sexual regime. Siebers explains that normative sexual practices imply a set of sequential steps and are primarily concerned with the role of genitals. Sexual practice is compulsorily regulated and genitalized by focusing on penis—vagina intercourse, assuming penetration as a legitimating factor in sexual conduct and leading to the idea that there is no sex if there is no genital penetration.

Joana, 40—44 years old, cerebral palsy. The lack of specialized information about sexuality in disability le to ignorance and fear. For instance, Magda, who is 30—34 years old and is visually impaired, told us that she preferred to go to a private gynaecologist because National Health Service staff were not well prepared:.

When I go to the appointment [at public service], sometimes I feel like a freak. I found an absolute ignorance amongst gynaecologists about sexuality of disabled women, particularly spinal cord injuries acquired. In their minds we have no pleasure, nor should we have children, because it only gets complicated, due to their misinformation. For example, I had to educate my gynaecologist about this matter. And concerning psychologists and psychiatrists it is the same. It remains a taboo subject. Manuela, 45—49 years old, spinal cord injury. The lack of professional training about the diversity of sexual desires and practices of disabled people was one of the most common complaints we gathered.

Marisa, 35—39 years old, talked about her experiences after having an accident that injured her from the waist down. Marisa tried to speak to her mother about her sexuality but her mother did not know how to answer her questions and suggested a medical appointment.

Once there, Marisa did not get any answers because the doctor would not give her advice about sex and sexuality, and advised Marisa to clarify her doubts with another woman who was paraplegic as well. Marisa never approached this woman because she was a stranger and much older, which made her feel uncomfortable. Faced with a wall of fuck sexual, Marisa felt the need to discover her sexuality on her own.

Her interview demonstrates that medical professionals should have the necessary training to discuss issues around sex and sexuality with disabled patients, particularly because different injuries can impact on different bodies in different ways, and despite changes in bodily functions, opportunities for sexual pleasure can continue to be embraced. For Rita, the idea that disabled people do not have sexual desires can lead to a lack of privacy, particularly for those who have reduced mobility and are dependent on others for care:. I am still a virgin and my experience at the level of affective relationships has not been satisfactory in that there is a great lack of privacy.

This prevents me from being with whom I want, where I want, and having my intimacy fulfilled. Rita, 45—49 years old, cerebral palsy. If the hospital is not, in principle, a place considered conducive to i. The lack of privacy in these institutions — for example, shared rooms, health professionals with regular access to rooms — prevents the exercise of sexuality for those who live in that space, even if temporarily.

Tinashe Dune, who worked as a personal assistant to students from the University of Ottawa, also reports cases in which patients fuck sexual not allowed to lock the doors of their room. This, amongst other examples, hinders sexual expression, reinforcing the infantilization that affects many people and leading, in turn, to the idea that disabled people — particularly those who are hospitalized long-term — do not need privacy or sexual engagement Dune, : Albertina was hospitalized for several months and experienced these constraints:.

Albertina, 25—29 years old, amputee. The disability movement has been involved in criticizing institutions as places of segregation.

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